Product SiteDocumentation Site

13.2. Mengubahsuai Antar Muka Grafis

13.2.1. Memilih suatu Manajer Tampilan

The graphical interface only provides display space. Running the X server by itself only leads to an empty screen, which is why most installations use a display manager to display a user authentication screen and start the graphical desktop once the user has authenticated. The three most popular display managers in current use are gdm3 (GNOME Display Manager), sddm (suggested for KDE Plasma) and lightdm (Light Display Manager). Since the Falcot Corp administrators have opted to use the GNOME desktop environment, they logically picked gdm3 as a display manager too. The /etc/gdm3/daemon.conf configuration file has many options (the list can be found in the /usr/share/gdm/gdm.schemas schema file) to control its behaviour while /etc/gdm3/greeter.dconf-defaults contains settings for the greeter “session” (more than just a login window, it is a limited desktop with power management and accessibility related tools). Note that some of the most useful settings for end-users can be tweaked with GNOME's control center.

13.2.2. Memilih suatu Manajer Jendela

Since each graphical desktop provides its own window manager, which window manager you choose is usually influenced by which desktop you have selected. GNOME uses the mutter window manager, Plasma uses kwin, and Xfce (which we present later) has xfwm. The Unix philosophy always allows using one's window manager of choice, but following the recommendations allows an administrator to best take advantage of the integration efforts led by each project.
Namun komputer-komputer lama mungkin mengalami kesulitan menjalankan lingkungan-lingkungan desktop grafis kelas berat. Dalam kasus-kasus ini, konfigurasi yang lebih ringanlah yang mesti digunakan. Manajer jendela yang “Ringan” (atau ber-footprint kecil) termasuk WindowMaker (dalam paket wmaker), Afterstep, fvwm, icewm, blackbox, fluxbox, atau openbox. Dalam kasus-kasus ini, sistem harus dikonfigurasi sehingga manajer jendela yang sesuai memperoleh prioritas; cara standar adalah dengan mengubah alternatif x-window-manager dengan perintah update-alternatives --config x-window-manager.

13.2.3. Manajemen Menu

Lingkungan desktop modern dan banyak window manager menyediakan menu berisi daftar aplikasi yang tersedia bagi pengguna. Agar menu tetap mutakhir terkait dengan rangkaian aplikasi yang ada, setiap paket biasanya menyediakan sebuah berkas .Desktop dalam /usr/share/applications. Format berkas-berkas tersebut telah distandarisasi oleh FreeDesktop.org:
Menu aplikasi dapat disesuaikan lebih lanjut oleh administrator melalui berkas konfigurasi keseluruhan sistem seperti yang dijelaskan oleh "Spesifikasi Menu Desktop". Pengguna akhir juga dapat menyesuaikan menu dengan alat grafis seperti kmenuedit (di Plasma), alacarte (di GNOME), atau menulibre.